Any number of ailments might result in a dog’s hind-legs losing strength. The following hints will help your veterinarian identify the problem’s root cause.
Regardless of the source, a dog’s weakness normally manifests itself first in the hind limbs. This seems obvious given how much work the dog’s hind-legs perform. They are in charge of pushing the body upward from a seated or lying position as well as driving the body forward when moving. You will be made aware of a weakness-related issue if you experience difficulty with these routine daily tasks.
What does a weak set of back legs on your dog look like? Hind-limb weakness is indicated by a variety of behaviors, including slow rising, sinking on the back limbs, dragging the tops of the toes, swaying of the hind end, occasionally crossing of the limbs, intolerance to physical exertion, slipping, sliding, and collapse of the hind end. The ability to stand on its hind-legs may also suddenly disappear in your dog.
If your dog exhibits any of these symptoms, you should pay attention to a few details that can aid your vet in identifying the problem:
Some problems are more likely than others depending on your dog’s age and size. This is applied to the diagnostic procedure as well.
The four primary categories of causes of hind-leg weakness are orthopedic, neurologic, metabolic, and cardiac.
Chronic joint inflammation/pain is the primary orthopedic cause of canine hind-leg paralysis (osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease). Although arthritis is obviously painful, it is frequently accompanied by compensatory pains, which are muscle aches and pains. The dog finds it difficult to stand up and move as a result. He might become more sedentary as a result, which would worsen the condition by causing him to lose muscle mass and fitness.
Due to the wear and tear on the joints over time, arthritis most frequently affects older dogs; overweight dogs endure an additional burden because of the increased tension those extra pounds place on the joints. Hip arthritis may appear in puppies of dogs with hip dysplasia, which results in improperly shaped hip joints. These arthritic disorders typically present with a delayed, sneaky onset of hind-leg weakening. It won’t appear to have occurred overnight.
Immune-mediated arthritis and Lyme arthritis are two acute types of arthritis that can cause a dog’s hind end to suddenly weaken. In addition to fractures and intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), overweight dogs frequently suffer from bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, which are additional orthopedic reasons of hind-leg paralysis. Your veterinarian will be able to identify these diseases and recommend the proper treatment with the use of blood tests and x-rays.
IVDD: When an unhealthy disc (or discs) puts strain on the spinal cord and causes neurologic weakness, IVDD transitions from an orthopedic problem to a neurologic one. The majority of these instances are treatable medically, but surgery is necessary if paralysis develops or medical treatment is ineffective.
Spinal tumors: Similar symptoms are brought on by neurologic disorders such as spinal tumors. For a diagnosis, sophisticated imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as occasionally cerebrospinal fluid examination, are needed.
Diskospondylitis: An infection of the intervertebral disc and the ends of the surrounding vertebrae is known as diskospondylitis. It can be challenging to diagnose, produces hind-limb paralysis regularly, and is excruciatingly painful. Long-term antibiotic use is the course of treatment (six to 12 months). Your dog may need more x-rays and/or more sophisticated testing, such as CT or MRI, to make a certain diagnosis because this ailment can be challenging to diagnose in its early stages. These canines can fully recover if they are diagnosed and treated appropriately.
Lumbosacral stenosis: Cauda equina syndrome, or lumbrosacral stenosis, is a degenerative disorder that affects only the lumbosacral joint and is related to IVDD. This joint joins the last vertebra to the pelvic region. It differs from the other intervertebral joints in that the spinal cord sends all of the peripheral nerves that travel to the hind end to this joint. In addition to being extremely painful, this type of disease typically results in neurologic impairments and weak hind limbs.
Degenerative myelopathy: Weakness in the hind-legs is a symptom of degenerative myelopathy (DM), a slow but progressive deterioration of the spinal cord. Although it affects various breeds, the German Shepherd Dog serves as the disease’s mascot. Typically, older and middle-aged canines are affected. There is just supportive care available as a treatment for DM right now.
Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune neuromuscular condition called myasthenia gravis (MG) causes muscle weakness that worsens with exertion. It may begin with weakness in the back limbs but quickly progresses to total body weakness and collapse.
Here’s a situation that is typical of Myasthenia gravis: Your dog wakes up after a nap and acts normally. As soon as you start walking, he begins to sink, slip, and stumble until he is unable to stand or walk. He can resume short-term function after a period of rest that enables the replacement of damaged neuromuscular transmitters. A blood test is required for diagnosis. Long-term therapy is required (six months or longer). Some canines will have remission and resume their regular lives. Others will require care and support throughout their lives.
Exercise-induced collapse: Labrador Retrievers and a few other breeds are susceptible to the genetic illness known as exercise-induced collapse (EIC). It usually manifests itself between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. It takes place following several minutes of intense exercise. The dog quickly starts to weaken and lose coordination in his hind limbs, eventually collapsing. For this, there is no cure. Avoiding vigorous exercise is one method of prevention. It is crucial that you get your puppy from a breeder who has tested the parents for this gene for the aforementioned reasons. Have your adoptive dog’s EIC gene checked if he exhibits these symptoms.
Idiopathic vestibular syndrome: In elderly dogs, idiopathic vestibular dysfunction is a frequent cause of weakness in the rear limbs and lack of coordination. It appears abruptly and may give you the impression that your dog is having a stroke. This disorder’s origin is uncertain. It typically comes with a head tilt and balance problems. With supportive care, the majority of dogs will recover in time.
Numerous illnesses transmitted by ticks can result in generalized neuromuscular weakness, which may first show in the rear limbs. If you notice ticks on your dog, let your vet know.
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), anemia (few red blood cells), and hypokalemia (low potassium) are a few examples of metabolic conditions that might weaken the hind-legs. Blood testing can quickly diagnose this. For these problems to be solved, identifying their underlying causes, which necessitates more diagnostic testing, is crucial.
Weakness can result from endocrine conditions such as insufficient thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) and underactive adrenal glands (Addison’s disease). Blood tests are used to diagnose both conditions, and there is no cure.
Hepatic encephalopathy, a metabolic disorder that causes sporadic weakness and confusion and is most noticeable after eating, can be brought on by certain liver disorders.
All of the body’s tissues must receive sufficient blood flow and oxygen, which depends on healthy heart function. Weakness happens when heart function is compromised, regardless of the underlying cause. Again, for the reasons already mentioned, weakness in dogs typically manifests itself in the hind-legs first.
Heart illnesses that affect dogs include heartworm disease, congestive heart failure, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac or pericardial tumors, and fluid in the sac surrounding the heart (pericardial effusion).
Your veterinarian will discover a cardiac explanation for the hind-leg weakness you’ve noticed during your dog’s physical examination, and treatment and diagnosis will proceed from there.
As you can see, there are many different possible reasons why dogs’ hind limbs get weak. Because of this, it’s crucial to have your dog inspected if you notice this problem; never just brush it off as a “old dog” problem. Many of the underlying causes can be ruled out by your veterinarian, who can then hopefully provide a conclusive diagnosis. Even if your dog is quite old, diagnosing and treating some of these disorders can completely transform his life!
There is no cure for some chronic illnesses, such as osteoarthritis. However, there is a lot you can do to enhance and preserve your dog’s quality of life for a very, very long period. Your sensitive loving care and dedication to supportive measures are the first step.
Support for Mobility Issues Caused by Arthritis
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Age-related osteoarthritis affects many older dogs, as well as some larger breeds who are genetically predisposed to it. Dogs that have arthritis have changes in their affected joints, which can be excruciatingly unpleasant for your pet.
Though it can affect any joint, arthritis most frequently affects the shoulders, hips, elbows, and knees. In addition to localized damage, genetics, and disease, it can also be brought on by continual wear and tear.
If your dog exhibits any of the following 7 symptoms, schedule an appointment with your veterinarian to develop a care plan.
You could notice that your dog is hesitant to perform tasks that they previously completed without issue.
Maybe you’re pet used to dash into your car as soon as the doors opened, but now they seem unconcerned. You could observe that your dog has trouble ascending or descending the steps. Has your pet lost interest in playing and running around like it once did? Maybe you take walks slowly?
If your pet exhibits these changes, arthritis may be to blame. These formerly simple actions probably hurt now that your joints are inflamed.
You might notice your pet limping or favoring one or more legs over the others, depending on which joints are damaged. Your pet may even become lame in one or both rear legs if the spine is harmed.
Upon getting up or down, your dog could appear to be in discomfort or stiffness, but once they have walked a little and “warmed up,” it seems to go away.
Joint inflammation can make the affected parts feely to the touch.
If your dog appears to be rejecting your affection or howls in pain when you pet them, you may have found the source of the issue.
Has your once-adorable dog started acting more and more like an elderly man?
If moving caused you chronic discomfort, you probably would have a shorter fuse as well. That also applies to your dog. When you try to touch them, they could bite or snap, especially if you are handling them in a way that makes the discomfort worse.
Dogs with discomfort frequently don’t want to be bothered. Your pet might spend more time in the house’s quiet corners or quit pursuing you around. It’s possible that their schedule will change and they won’t be available for your usual walk or play session.
An arthritic pet will frequently focus their attention on hurting joints. They may frequently lick or chew on one or more locations, even to the point of causing hair loss and inflamed skin.
Pain wears them out!
Pets won’t want to walk as far or play as much if it is difficult for them to move around. They might spend more time relaxing or sleeping instead.
Dogs with arthritis frequently experience muscular atrophy from inactivity.
Some muscles will gradually atrophy as a result of less use. You might notice that one or more of your legs appear thinner than the others if you have arthritis in those legs.
Please schedule an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as you can if you see any of these symptoms in your pet. Even though arthritis cannot be cured, developing a treatment plan in its early stages can help your dog live a better life and make the condition more tolerable.
If you would like more information on your dog’s arthritis please contact us on our form, or you can visit our Facebook Group to see how others have helped their dogs. If you are interrested in purchasing a brace for your dog you can visit our shopping page.
Signs your dog is in pain. The idea is to be aware of your dog’s typical movement and react swiftly to any abnormalities.
Mental alarms may be triggered by your energetic dog limping or moving in an unnatural manner. A sprain, perhaps? A strained muscle perhaps a strained ligament or tendon what should you do in response to this?
You should first determine whether the aberration is a short-term or long-term symptom.
An acute injury is one that manifests abruptly, typically 24 to 48 hours after the initial trauma. Sprains, falls, accidents, and other impacts can cause acute injuries, which are characterized by sharp, immediate pain, soreness, redness, swelling, warm-to-the-touch skin, and inflammation.
In contrast, chronic injuries take longer to manifest, get better and worse, and result in persistent soreness or dull pain. Overuse, arthritis, and acute injuries that were never appropriately treated are the typical causes of chronic injuries.
Sometimes a dog’s injury is visible because they are limping, howling in pain, or are unable to move. But paying attention to your dog’s movement and demeanor is time well spent because spotting mild indications can help prevent more serious issues. These are some examples of pain and stress signals:
The majority of canine injuries are chronic rather than acute. Chronic injuries are caused by overuse, excessive motion, and wear and tear. Every dog is susceptible to injuries, but some are more vulnerable than others, such as dogs that are overweight, weekend athletes, couch potatoes, elderly dogs, dogs with arthritis, dogs used in search and rescue, and canine athletics (such as dogs competing in fly ball, agility, freestyle, disc dog, hunting, field work, dock diving, obedience, weight pulling, dog sledding, and other active sports).
Rest is the number one suggestion for canine wounds. In particular, if the damage involves ligaments or tendons, which lack a blood supply that provides healing nutrients to the injury site, both visible injuries and subtle micro tears require time to heal. As soon as even little symptoms appear, it’s crucial to cease trekking, running, playing, or competing.
Check your dog’s nails, paw pads, and fur if he becomes abruptly lame, bleeds, or compulsively licks a paw, advises Dr. Davis. It’s common to see grass awns embedded in the skin between the toes. The pads are frequently affected by cuts, stingers, or foreign objects and a ripped nail can be painful.
If the injury is serious, take your dog right away to the vet; however, if it’s only minor or a visit to the clinic isn’t feasible, take your dog home and confine him to a quiet place. Write down any changes you observe, beginning with the day and hour you first noticed the issue and a description of what your dog was doing at the time. Your veterinarian or other therapist will be able to recognize and treat the injury with the aid of an accurate history of symptoms and treatments.
Range-of-motion exercises, such coaxing your dog with a food or toy into a turn to the right or left or raising and lowering his head, can help you record symptoms. Additionally, daily massage and tender touch reveal hints. When you pet or press your dog’s shoulder or hindquarters, does she turn away? Is there somewhere on your body that seems especially heated, hard, stiff, sensitive, or swollen? One of the quickest methods to find inflammation, muscle strains, and other discomforts is through touch.
Rest, ice, and massage are effective treatments for many minor and severe muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries. “Going outside on a leash to relieve itself counts as resting your pet; walks, treks, running, jumping, climbing stairs, or playing with other animals do not. Visit your veterinarian for a precise diagnosis if, after a few days, your pet has not improved, does not get better, or continues to display the same symptoms.
For severe injuries, cold is advised since it lessens discomfort and swelling. Dogs who are hurt instinctively look for places to stand or lie down, such as puddles, ponds, streams, and snow banks.
It is untrue for a bag of frozen peas to work as an efficient ice pack. The peas don’t remain cold for long enough to be useful. Pet supply shops have cold therapy items for animals, while businesses that sell medical supplies also sell cold packs for sports injuries. The finest cold packs have a gel inside that doesn’t harden when frozen, allowing you to shape them to a dog’s body.
Make your own cold packs by combining two cups of water, one and a half cups of isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol, and two tablespoons of salt in a self-sealing plastic bag. Double-bag the bag to ensure a tight closure.
Any open ice pack should be covered with a towel before application, removed after 10 to 15 minutes, and left off for at least two hours before reapplying because cold limits circulation and ice left on for too long might result in difficulties. Never use cold treatments right before working out, practicing, or competing.
Put two cups of uncooked rice in a sock, tie the top, and microwave for one minute to create your own warm pack. It will continue to be warm for 20 minutes. For additional relaxation, add a sprig of lavender or a drop of essential oil. The sock can be utilized repeatedly. If you don’t have a microwave, put the raw rice in a cookie sheet and preheat the oven to 150°F for 5 to 7 minutes.
Then, pour the warm rice into a sock or pouch, make sure it’s a safe temperature before applying, and check to make sure it’s still warm enough. As an alternative, soak a towel in warm water, wring it out thoroughly, and apply to the affected region. As required, reheat.
Whenever utilizing a warm pack, never leave a dog alone. To ensure the optimum temperature, always place a towel between the pack and your skin.
The fundamentals of massage are simple to master, and the majority of dogs like to be touched, stretched, and caressed. Restoring range of motion, calming the patient, and repairing injured tissue are all benefits of massage therapy. Hire a professional dog massage therapist, or study the foundations in books or on videos.
Chiropractic adjustments restore proper joint and vertebral alignment to alleviate pain, lessen muscular spasms, enhance coordination, and improve general health.
Musculoskeletal issues like arthritis, disc diseases, stiffness, and lameness can be improved or treated by acupuncture. It’s near relative, acupressure, involves pressing on acupressure points without using needles. Gent finger pressure or small, counterclockwise or clockwise-moving circles can be used to accomplish this.
Veterinarians and canine rehabilitation therapists provide a range of treatments for wounds, including hydrotherapy, shock wave therapy, therapeutic exercise, therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic laser, PEMF therapy, cryo therapy, orthotics and braces, electrical stimulation, herbal remedies, and energy healing modalities like Reiki.
Without first visiting your veterinarian, avoid giving your dog any over-the-counter medications. Numerous human drugs “may not be taken by your pet” or “may produce undesirable reactions with your dog’s other meds.”
Even if your dog appears to be in good health and reacts well to pain medication, follow your vet’s advice to rest and only engage in light exercise while the injury heals.
Helping your dog avoid damage by taking precautions takes time and effort, but it’s time well spent.
Preventing obesity is a crucial objective. Carrying too much weight puts too much strain on the muscles, tendons, and ligaments. “Obesity is also an inflammatory condition. Degenerative joint disease and a variety of other problems throughout the body can be brought on by chronic inflammation. Reduce the amount of treats your overweight dog receives during training and forbid family members from giving her more. It takes a village to lose weight successfully in dogs.
Similar to humans, pets benefit from having a strong core to lessen stress on the spine and limbs. Regular conditioning should be a lifelong objective for your dog. Your dog need not be an athlete to train like one. There are several online athletic and conditioning communities, and your neighborhood kennel club might know of them.
Avoiding repeatedly doing the same movements is another protective measure. Tennis ball throwing may be your dog’s favorite exercise, but repetitive ball throwing can lead to injuries, so mix it up with other hobbies.
Keep toenails short because overgrown toenails alter the biomechanics of the toes, which affects the alignment and mobility of the legs and spine.
Be practical while planning your dog’s schedule. Sprains and strains are brought on by abruptly changing from couch potato to canine athlete. For ambitious games of fetch, trail runs, and other “too much fun” occasions, inactive dogs require time and progressively increasing activity. And if your dog is hurt, have patience. Keep in mind that one of your dogs strongest heals is time.
If your dog is in need of a knee brace or elbow brace due to injury you can order your brace today via our shopping page, if you have any further questions about what you should do you can contact us via our contact form, or visit our Facebook page or Group page for more information.
Dog Knee Recovery Without Surgery
By Rosemary Levesque, Licensed Spiritual Healer
Second Nature Healing®https://secondnaturehealing.com
Rosemary@secondnaturehealing.com or call directly 503-747-3307
The following article is written in gratitude to Posh Dog Knee Brace for their support during Gracie’s recovery from a torn CCL. Gracie wore the brace and healed well without surgery. In honor of Gracie who had a long healthy life, I’m offering:
The cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs is a band of connective tissue that connects the upper leg bone (thigh) to the two lower leg bones (tibia and fibula) at the knee joint – called the stifle in dogs. The CCL helps stabilize the stifle, and is highly vulnerable to tears which destabilize the joint. Damage to the knee joint is the leading cause of rear-leg lameness and the major cause of degenerative joint disease in dogs. (1)
If you can’t wait to get started with healing and recovery, please begin here.
My number ONE product source for healing and recovery is https://avinihealth.com/rosemary.
These products are designed with humans in mind, but with my years of experience working with animals, I know how critical it is to use these products, safely and easily, across the board, with all species. Call me for a consultation on how to help your dog heal faster, without surgery, using the Posh Dog Knee brace and my products.
There are many situations that could result in a CCL tear:
Contributing factors like obesity, genetics, and general health may also have a role in causing a torn CCL. Since animals are excellent at hiding their injuries and illnesses, you’ll want to be especially observant if you suspect a tear. In addition to limping or lameness, watch for muscle atrophy in the thigh or imbalance in the spine.
When Gracie jumped into the car as usual one beautiful spring day after a pleasant walk in the park, she yelped in pain. Yet after her initial jolt, she seemed fine. She ate and walked normally for several weeks until we had our next vet visit, a yearly wellness check-up. Suddenly she picked up her hind leg, revealing her lameness. It surprised me that she’d wait until we were in his office to say something about her problem. She hadn’t shown me any sign of lameness since the incident a few weeks prior.
A veterinary examination for stifle injury usually includes manipulation of the joint and is called a “drawer test”. Physical manipulation of the joint forces the ligaments to stretch and tear more. Unfortunately, it was an issue and Gracie became obviously lame after that. That’s why I add this test to the list of causes. Even if a small tear already exists, it can worsen after such manipulation. If you suspect a torn CCL, do NOT allow your vet to perform the drawer test.
Our vet suggested that we see a specialist for CCL surgery. He also offered cold laser treatments at his clinic to help speed healing and recovery. I felt hopeful about Gracie’s healing and recovery with the healing methods I already know and use. So, in addition to frequent cold laser treatments, my plan included Reiki, essential oils, and acupuncture. I opted to not have invasive, expensive surgery.
The most common response to a torn CCL is to perform a surgery called Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO). In this surgery, the tibia, a lower leg bone, is cut (leveled) and rotated to change the direction of movement. A plate is added to secure the new location of the joint. Following weeks of immobility and pain management with medications the problem may be resolved. The cost of surgery and x-rays may range from $2500 to upwards of $6000.
However, cost isn’t the only issue to consider. Weeks of restrained immobility are not only depressing for your active animal, but difficult to control and have other effects such as weight gain, muscle atrophy, and risk of infection as well as the risks associated with the surgery itself. Pain medications can often have harmful side-effects. More importantly, studies now show a definite link between TPLO surgery and osteosarcoma (bone cancer) at the site of surgery.
“. . . dogs with a history of TPLO were 40 times as likely to develop proximal tibial osteosarcoma as were dogs with no history of TPLO. In addition, each 1-kg (2.2-lb) increase in body weight was associated with an 11% increase in the odds of proximal tibial osteosarcoma.” (2)
What’s really best for your dog? Is there another way?
Gracie did well with the holistic methods I used to support her healing. Most importantly, we were still able to walk her short distances while she gradually improved. We purchased a set of stairs for the car so she wouldn’t jump into the car anymore to risk further injury. We added specific supplements to support joint healing and repair.
All of it worked pretty well until one cold winter day when Gracie slipped on the ice. She reinjured her CCL and was in obvious pain. Back to the start once again, I panicked and scheduled an appointment with a surgeon for that week. Fortunately, my intuition told me to keep looking. That’s when I found the REAL ANSWER that saved Gracie’s knee and allowed her to heal – finally – without surgery.
I began searching for a knee brace for Gracie and discovered that they fall into several categories:
Of course, the custom fit seemed like the better way to go, and quality, durability, and customer service and support were also important. That’s when I finally found Posh Dog Knee Brace. (3) They provide a way to make a custom fit brace with highly durable materials that are waterproof (and beach-proof) and long-lasting with a superior guarantee. Their fast service provided us with a custom-fit brace for Gracie in just days.
Immediately on the first try-on, Gracie was able to take her first steps. We started using the brace for short walks until she regained her strength and balance. That’s when I noticed how much she had been compensating for her injury. She was finally able to walk straight without limping, and without any curve or adjustment in her spine. The thigh muscles which had atrophied began to get strong once again. We continued with natural healing techniques and tools which were much more effective now that Gracie had the support of her brace to stabilize the stifle.
There may be little difference in perceived success when comparing TPLO surgery to using an ordinary or inferior knee brace (one that doesn’t fit properly or doesn’t fully support the stifle joint). I believe the real differences come in the form of ease and comfort while healing as well as from the quality of the brace. Many of the sites I investigated, including articles from the American Veterinary Association, Veterinary Medicine websites, and holistic journals gave a more comprehensive picture. Surgeons at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania don’t use TPLO surgery.
Dr. Amy Kapatkin, a board-certified orthopedic surgeon says, “Why break a bone to fix a ligament” (4)
It’s critical to support healing from every angle while the stifle joint is stabilized.
 Association of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with proximal tibial osteosarcoma in dogs
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
September 15, 2018, Vol. 253, No. 6, Pages 752-756
Laura E. SelmicBVetMed, MPH; Stewart D. Ryan BVSc, MS; Audrey Ruple DVM, PhD; William E. Pass DVM; Stephen J. Withrow DVM
Flint Animal Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. (Selmic, Ryan, Pass, Withrow); Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. (Ruple)
Today we will be talking about dog acupuncture. The treatment is effective, especially for canines with arthritis or neurological issues, whether the veterinary acupuncturist uses Traditional Chinese Medicine or Western medical acupuncture.
Dogs with osteoarthritis and some neurologic and musculoskeletal problems may get relief from pain through acupuncture, which also enhances their comfort and quality of life. It works best when combined with other techniques and modalities, such as analgesics (painkillers), laser treatment, massage, and physical therapy, as a complimentary therapy.
Around 100 BC, acupuncture emerged as a crucial tool utilized by practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The original TCM principles are still followed in its usage for human and veterinary medicine, as well as by others who find it useful for reasons other than those covered by TCM.
Traditional acupuncture is regarded as an alternative medical treatment since the rationales behind its application do not align with contemporary evidence-based medicine.
According to TCM, the life force energy known as Chi (occasionally spelt “qi,” but always pronounced “Chee”) permeates all of nature, including people and animals. A network of meridians or passageways is thought to be the body’s primary means of transport for chi. Meridians are invisible passageways through which the essential life force travels; they are not visible bodily features like blood vessels or neurons. Similar to people, dogs have named and mapped meridians, and each one has an effect on specific bodily systems and physiological processes.
Yang and Yin are the two polar opposites of Chi. A body that is balanced in both Yin and Yang is one that is healthy and harmonious. Consider the polarities on a battery’s ends. The positive terminal is on one end of the battery, and the negative terminal is on the other. Electricity travels from the positive terminal of a battery to the negative terminal when it is inserted into a device, such as the remote control for your television. Similar to the Yin and Yang in a healthy dog or human, the flow of electricity is steady and balanced.
According to TCM, a Yin/Yang imbalance is what causes disease and agony. A certain meridian may experience congestion, blockage, or stagnation in the flow of Chi. This could result in that meridian having more Yin and less Yang.
In order to stimulate specific spots (referred to as acupoints) along the blocked meridians and restore the equilibrium between Yin and Yang, acupuncture involves inserting very small needles into the skin. Acupuncturists study and memorize each acupoint’s name and function on the body’s 12 meridians in order to treat particular diseases and injuries as well as to promote health and ward off disease.
Dry needling, a technique used in traditional acupuncture, involves inserting very small needles into acupoints connected to certain medical disorders and leaving them there for 10 to 30 minutes. Dog Acupuncture in other forms includes:
When you take your dog to a veterinarian that uses traditional Western medicine, the doctor will inquire about your dog’s appetite, drinking habits, and level of energy. She’ll want to know what you feed your dog and whether or not her bowel movements are consistent with typical behavior. These inquiries will typically be made by the vet as she examines your dog physically, palpating her abdomen, feeling her heart and lungs, and peering into her eyes, ears, and mouth.
Some of the same questions will be asked by veterinary acupuncturists, but they may also add some that may sound strange to you. For instance, they might ask if your dog enjoys a soft or a hard bed to sleep in, and whether she loves to do so in warm or cool environments. Additionally, when they conduct a physical examination of your dog, they will perform procedures that traditional medical professionals do not, like feeling (rather than just counting) your dog’s pulse in several locations, particularly the femoral artery (inside each of the dog’s hind legs, close to the groin), and examining your dog’s tongue.
Veterinarian acupuncturists determine where your dog’s Chi is obstructed or stuck and which acupoints they need to stimulate to restore the healthy flow of Chi using the additional information about your dog’s health collected by these alternative diagnostics.
The acupuncturist typically places needles in six to thirty different places on your dog. As the treatment begins to take effect, dogs almost invariably become extremely calm, and many dogs fall asleep for the about 20 minutes that the needles are left in place.
Acupuncturists typically advise having the canine patient return for at least six or eight sessions of acupuncture, scheduled at least once or twice a week for a few weeks, and subsequently at longer intervals, even though favorable effects may be noticed as soon as the same or next day.
Studies on the effectiveness of the method have often produced conflicting results, and Western scientists have not discovered any evidence to support the presence of acupuncture points or energy meridians in the body. Nevertheless, there is sufficient anecdotal evidence to support its capacity to achieve better results in treated humans and animals that many practitioners use the modality without necessarily believing in the TCM beliefs that underlie the technique.
The phrase “Western Medical Acupuncture,” which is becoming more and more common nowadays, refers to the use of acupuncture in addition to traditional medical diagnoses and treatments.
Modern researchers have looked for alternate explanations for acupuncture’s success, arguing that acupoints and meridians may exist along important facets of the neuromuscular system even though they are not yet detectable with diagnostic methods in use today. Acupoints have been discovered to connect with muscle/tendon junctions, superficial nerve plexuses, and points where nerves enter muscles. Additionally, the meridians on TCM maps, or the channels through which Chi flows, frequently follow the same routes as peripheral nerves.
But there is enough proof that when acupoints are stimulated, the body reacts in measurable ways. Endorphins and endogenous opioids are released, which may have analgesic (pain-relieving) effects. Anti-inflammatory mediators (known as cytokines) are transported to the region as a result of increased blood flow to the area surrounding the acupoints. This lessens inflammation and aids in the healing process.
Dog Acupuncture can be a useful addition to traditional therapy for some medical disorders, according to recent studies. A dog’s comfort and movement may be enhanced more than with only analgesics and physical therapy alone when musculoskeletal and osteoarthritis pain is treated with acupuncture, physical therapy, and analgesics. Additionally, electroacupuncture may help dogs whose mobility has been reduced or decreased as a result of intervertebral disc condition (IVDD).
Find a veterinarian who is certified in veterinary acupuncture if you’re interested in using acupuncture in your dog’s therapy program for osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal discomfort, or IVDD. Veterinarians who hold this specialty certification have undergone extensive training in veterinary acupuncture and its integration with Western medicine.
If you need more information about dog acupuncture you can contact through our contact page or visit us on Facebook.
When dogs wag their tails and strike objects with them repeatedly, they commonly suffer from this dog tail injury.
Nobody is thrilled if your dog develops what is known as “happy tail syndrome,” though. Dog tail injuries are common, especially in cheerful dogs, but they are challenging to treat.
Dogs with long, slender tails that wag vigorously and traumatize the tip of their tail when it strikes a hard surface are said to have “happy tail syndrome.” Every time they bang the tail, they cause more harm to the skin there. It also bleeds. A lot. While the dog is at rest, it might create a clot or scab, but as soon as the dog is up and wagging—or strikes something—the scab falls off, the wound cracks open, and the bleeding resumes. It’s extremely frustrating.
Now what? Finding a means to shield the tail tip from the recurrent damage is a key component of happy tail syndrome treatment. You might be able to encourage it to heal if you can.
The key is creativity. These wild happy tails are difficult to maintain bandaged, and dogs aren’t always ready to do so. People have experimented with a wide variety of items, including pool noodles, toilet paper rolls, chopped water bottles, foam pipe insulating tubes, and syringe casings from your veterinarian. There are commercial kits that use cushioning devices that fit into a bandage on the tail to protect the dog’s tail.
Here are a few pointers: Try to keep it as light as you can. The likelihood that the bandage may go winging off with the wagging increases with its weight. I apply white first-aid tape that extends several inches down the tail before being incorporated into the bandage covering the wound. The goal is to increase the bandage’s “grab” so that it will adhere better. Make sure it’s not too tight! Keep the protective tube’s end open to allow air to flow to the tail tip.
Sadly, even if you are successful in helping your dog’s tail recover, it will probably reoccur again. You could try padding the walls, corners, and other surfaces where he constantly bumping his tail, but that’s difficult to accomplish and not very appealing when visitors are over. Only where there is room can you try to interact with your dog, but that is also impractical.
In Conclusion! Talk to your veterinarian about having the tail amputated if you can’t get it to mend or if you’re sick of returning home to a bloody scene straight out of a horror movie. If you go short enough, the surgery will take care of the traumatized tip and ensure that it never happens again. These dogs occasionally develop adorable tiny bob tails. You won’t get any blood splatter, and they are still free to wag as fiercely as they want.
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One of the first things you’ll do to help your dog adjust to his new home is potty training, and there are several different approaches you can take. To ensure success for both you and your dog, try these seven tips.
Decide where you want your new friend to “go” outside the house before you start potty training. Do you have a yard? Point them in the direction of a place that is easy to reach from the door. Dogs living in apartments should also be able to recognize open, accessible natural terrain that isn’t blocked by people or vehicles.
Once you’ve chosen the location you’ll take your dog during this potty training phase, be sure to take them there each time they need to go outdoors. Consistency is key while teaching a puppy to use the bathroom since dogs can scent their territory.
Although your new puppy may not be able to communicate with you in your native tongue, they will nonetheless make an effort to let you know when they need to go potty. Fortunately, there are several indicators you can watch for. As soon as you see them, take your dog outdoors to their designated potty training area:
When your dog exhibits the final symptom on the list, it might already be too late. So that they are aware that their customary space is up for grabs before they go in the wrong location, be prepared to open the door nonetheless.
Plan beforehand so you can swiftly take your dog outside if you see any of these symptoms. Keep a leash directly by the door so you can quickly lead the pet outside. Keep in mind to direct your dog to the same location each time they need to urinate. Once they are aware of the location of their designated bathroom, they will go there on their own.
Maintain a routine for all meal and snack times while potty training a dog. This is beneficial in two ways: The first benefit of planned meals is that they will teach your dog when to expect meals throughout the day. Second, if you feed your dog at regular intervals, you may follow up and take them to their designated potty training area in the knowledge that they’ll be prepared to relieve themselves shortly after they finish eating.
It’s likely that your dog will urinate frequently if they consume a lot of water. During the potty training stage, take your puppy outside soon after drinking so that they are in the appropriate location at the appropriate time.
Take your dog outside as soon as you wake up, after each feeding, and whenever you notice signs that they might need to relieve themselves. A lot of dogs have a bowel movement 30 minutes after eating. Until you have a better understanding of how frequently your dog does potty, take them outside every hour to prevent accidents. Based on their age, the following are some rough guidelines for how long puppies can “hold it”:
While small breeds with smaller bladders may require more frequent bathroom breaks, big breeds have a stronger ability to wait. Most dogs can wait seven hours or more by the time they are seven months old. They ought to know how to alert you when they need to go outside by that age. Always take your dog out before you go to bed to prevent 3 a.m. wake-up calls or morning surprises.
Everyone enjoys being told when they are doing a good job, and your dog will benefit greatly from this encouragement. It doesn’t matter if you give them treats or just pat them while saying “excellent work.” Just make sure they understand how much you value their attempts to conduct themselves properly. To teach the command “go to the bathroom,” think about identifying the deed. For instance, you might tell your dog to “take a break” before engaging in play.
Puppies prefer not to go potty close to where they eat or sleep. By crate training your dog, you can use it to reinforce housetraining. A puppy can easily relieve themselves in one part of a bathroom or laundry room while sleeping and playing in the remaining areas. If you need to use the phone or check your email while keeping an eye on your young dog, keep them in their kennel.
They will let you know if they need to use the restroom because they won’t want to mess up this place. Put them back in the kennel when you reach home if they play unproductively while outside. A crucial lesson that every puppy should learn is that if they mess up the kennel, they will have to temporarily live with it.
Accidents happen frequently during house training. When your dog needs to go outdoors to the designated pee place, quietly direct them there immediately away. Punishing a puppy could exacerbate the problem and lead to more accidents at home.
Clear the space right away. Ammonia should be avoided since it smells a lot like pee. While disinfecting, bleach cannot get rid of odors. Your dog will probably go potty there again if they smell feces in your house. Use an enzymatic cleanser or odor neutralizer made especially for pet excrement to clean the stained area. While it dries, keep your dog away from the area.
When encountering new people or animals, puppies may squat out of excitement or respect. Before meet-and-greets, give them bathroom breaks to prevent a mess. Take frequent bathroom breaks while traveling as well. If you want to board your dog while you are away, make sure to provide the facility detailed instructions to ensure consistency. Restart house training if you move to a new residence. Limit them to one area of the house, show them where the new toilet is, and give them praise when they behave well.
Many dogs don’t like going outside in the rain or don’t like going potty in the snow. A puppy may be terrified of the cold and rain for the first time, but even older dogs prefer to potty in comfort. To provide some weather protection, keep an umbrella close at hand.
Create a trail to your dog’s chosen bathroom location so they can go without exposing their tails to the bitterly cold ground. Increase their reward for using the restroom in poor weather by giving them twice as many treats. This will lessen the likelihood of unpleasant surprises beneath the piano bench. Even the best-trained dogs are more likely to have accidents in the house if they are overly anxious, stressed out, or afraid. Consult your veterinarian to rule out any health issues whenever your house-trained dog has a number of accidents.
Not all dogs pick things up at the same rate. By eight or ten weeks old, some puppies are experts at house training. Other puppies, such those of toy breeds, may take longer to grasp your expectations and may not show consistency until they are a few months old. In most circumstances, all dogs can learn to relieve themselves in a permitted area with your patience, encouragement, and persistence.
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Here is the best advice and tips on how to bathe a dog, from selecting the right shampoo to washing a dog’s head.
A little shampoo, some water…. How challenging can bathing a dog be? Occasionally, harder than you’d expect. Regular dog baths are an essential element of pet care, regardless of whether your dog enjoys them or flees when you say “B-A-T-H.”
You usually don’t need to bathe your dog more frequently than once a month, unless your pet had spent the afternoon playing about in mud puddles. Breed-specific factors come into play here; for example, longer-coated dogs may need more regular bathing or even visits to a groomer. Consult a groomer or your veterinarian if you’re unsure how frequently to soap up your dog. (IMPORTANT TIP) Giving a bath once a month is crucial, though.
Dogs develop a completely new layer of skin cells every 30 days or so. “The aged cells therefore slough off. Dander and other similar products are produced in this way. Therefore, regular grooming or bathing helps to reduce that dander.
Your initial choice will probably be where you will bathe your dog. Your decision will probably be influenced by the size of your dog. A little dog might fit in the kitchen sink for a bath, but a large dog will need more room. Some pet owners like dog-specific bathtubs, whether they are standalone units, built-in units, or located in a DIY dog bath facility. Fur and filth can be prevented from blocking your family bathtub by using a designated dog bath space. But it’s also acceptable if you want to bathe your dog in the household bathtub. Simply pick a location where you can bring your dog in and out of the cleaning area without risk.
Then, make sure you have all your supplies and tools close at hand before turning on the faucet. You don’t want to have to go around your house chasing a wet dog in search of conditioner. Of course, you’ll need towels, shampoo, and conditioner on your supplies list. Just in case, you might also want an eye wash and a non-slip bath mat.
You need to start with the correct supplies if you want to give your dog a thorough bath. Make careful to use shampoo designed exclusively for pets. Dogs’ skin has a different pH than people’s. Therefore, they are more alkaline. It can irritate someone’s skin if they use shampoo designed for people.
Puppy-specific shampoo may be a good idea when bathing a puppy. Puppy shampoo’s pH is similar to that of a dog’s eyes, so if any goes in there, it won’t bother the eyes as much.
Ask a groomer what products they use if you’re unclear of the ones to choose for your particular dog. Use a gentle shampoo, a shampoo made to treat the ailment your dog is having, such as itchy skin, may be the best option.
The crucial next step is applying a conditioner to your dog’s coat after shampooing. When doing your own grooming at home, you should always follow up with a conditioner because using shampoo strips the skin and hair of many of their natural oils. Therefore, your conditioner both hydrates the epidermis and seals up every cell on the exterior of the hair shaft itself. “Basically, using the conditioner is rehydrating.”
The real fun starts once you have selected the ideal location and ready-to-use supplies. Here is our bathing process:
One of the trickiest steps in giving your dog a bath is washing his head. Avoid getting water or soap in your dog’s eyes, nose, or other delicate body parts. Delaying this step until after the bath and suggests wiping your pet’s face with a washcloth.
Your dog’s head and face should be gently washed with the washcloth dipped in soapy water. After that, rinse with clear water using a fresh washcloth. Make sure all of the soap is removed from those locations.
You should try to avoid the eye area as much as possible when applying shampoo, even if the shampoo is intended to be gentler on puppies’ eyes. Have an eye wash on hand to use if shampoo does get in your dog’s eyes. Moistening eye goobers on your dog before gently removing them with a toothbrush.
Even though some dog breeds adore the water (golden retrievers come to mind), many dogs tremble at the mere sound of the bath tap going on. Give your dog lots of praise while bathing him to help combat this. Treats are preferable to praise. When your dog next sees you gathering the dog shampoo, make sure he associates it with good things.
Having a companion hold the dog while you give him a wash is also beneficial. Additionally, if at all feasible, begin bathing your dog as a puppy to get him accustomed to the experience.
First, try your best to towel-dry your dog. Then, put a human hairdryer to a medium or cool setting or use a hairdryer designed specifically for dogs. When your dog is drying off, start brushing him. As long as your dog doesn’t shiver excessively or get the chills, you might also let him air dry.
“Every 10 or 15 minutes run a brush through them as they’re drying and that’ll help avoid mats or help separate mats if they have them,” if you’re air-drying your dog.
Your dog will look and smell better after a bath. Additionally, you will feel good knowing that you did something good for your dog’s wellbeing and appearance.
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Hey guys, this is Nikki, lead veterinary technician with Posh Dog Knee Braces. Today, lets discuss weight management in our spayed and neutered pups. It is well known that spaying and neutering, after a certain safe age, is recommended by almost every veterinarian. It is very important in the prevention of overpopulation, and other health concerns, however, it also predisposes our pups to obesity. Unfortunately, many vets are so quick to schedule your dog for surgery, and there is simply no information given to the owners as far as where to go now.
So, now we have this relatively healthy dog, young and probably more active, and we just took away the hormones that helped keep their weight in check. Post spay and neuter, their metabolic energy decreases significantly. This means that we need to also be cutting back the calories, by at least 25%. The other issue, especially with females, is that the hormone estrogen helps to keep their appetite at bay. Taking this hormone away can give your dog an increase in appetite, which is bad in a patient that needs to decrease the calories taken in per day.
So, now you go back in for your annual checkup, to find your baby has gained weight. The veterinarian possibly tells you that your dog needs to go on a weight loss diet, or be given less food per day. So, now you have a dog that just went through major hormonal changes, and has increased food cravings, yet you are feeding them barely any food.
Sound familiar? This equals out to an unhappy dog, and in return and unhappy owner. So, what is the solution, because it is also essential that we spay and neuter to be good pet parents, and do our part to prevent overpopulation.
This is where it is time to get proactive. Feel free to include your veterinarian in your plan, as you will need a way to weigh your dog every 2-4 weeks to check their weight. The good news is this is free😊 Now, it is time to implement the proper spay and neuter diet. For those that feed a raw diet already, you should not need to make any real changes.
The key is to increase protein and fiber, but keep in mind it needs to be healthy fiber. There are a few expensive brand foods marketed to spayed and neutered pets that the first ingredient is chicken by product. Double yuck! Just keep in mind that carbs will not help with weight loss. Foods with lots of rice for example are not meant for weight loss. It may be bland, but it will cause weight gain.
Try discussing with your veterinarian before you plan to spay or neuter, ask them to help you develop a proper diet to keep your dog healthy for years to come! This also will help prevent issues with joints potentially in the future.
Please let me know if you have any questions, you can contact us through our contact form or visit us on our Facebook page.
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Hey guys, this is Nikki, lead veterinary technician with Posh Dog Knee Braces, and today let’s talk about pain in our dogs. I hear so often owners say they don’t feel their dog is in pain, or that they don’t know what to look for. Today I would like to cover things to look for, and how to see those subtle hints your dog is giving you.
First, does your dog show any signs of panting, licking a certain area or paw/leg, pacing, trouble laying down or standing, chewing an area, legs shaking/body shaking, trouble standing from a laying position, holding a leg up, low whimpering/whining, growling or biting out of character, flinching when touched in an area? If you can answer yes to any of these symptoms, there is a good chance your dog is experiencing discomfort.
Dogs are extremely stoic, which means it is against their nature to show they are hurting outwardly like we would. A child is easy, they will hold the sore area, cry, and tell us what happened or that it hurts them. With our dogs, it can be a bit of a challenge to identify if they are in pain, and when to give the appropriate relief.
One of the most painful injuries to a dog is a CCL injury. This is significant agony, and your dog needs proper relief to get them through the first few weeks. There will be a lot of swelling present, and they may be cranky and sore during this time.
The first 2-3 weeks it is important to keep them on some form of anti-inflammatory. I hear a lot of people learn about nsaids, and immediately take their dog off of them within the first 1-2 weeks of an injury, stating their dog doesn’t look in pain any longer. I understand not wanting nsaids, however, I guarantee your dog is still in pain within the first 3 weeks of this injury. There are other alternatives to nsaids, which I go over in another blog, but that does not mean to withdraw all pain relief.
If suddenly taken off of pain relief, dogs (like people), will experience something called withdrawal. This means that their body is shocked with sudden pain, that has not been effectively treated, and it will be very difficult to get them feeling better without a strong med like a narcotic, something to calm and partially sedate them until pain management is achieved. So, please do not suddenly remove pain relief without having something else to start. If stopping an nsaid, you need to wait at least 24 hours before starting something like willow bark, to make sure the tummy does not get upset, and sometimes waiting for severe pain to stop before doing so might be best.
I always suggest resting 2-3 weeks, even if we are fast and you receive the brace in the first couple weeks of the acute injury, still wait a bit to begin walks. Give your pup time to get through the painful parts, then we can start bracing and PT. They will get better, and feel better, but it is our job as their owner to keep them comfortable. It will make all of our jobs much easier as we begin recovery.
Please let me know if you have any questions about how we can help your dog live a happy and pain-free life, poshdogkneebrace.com, or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit our Facebook page.
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This is about half of the people I speak with on a daily basis. Puppies are wonderful, and really do bring our families and other dogs joy, but sometimes that comes with a cost. Whether you bring home the puppy before an injury on your older dog, or after, we still need to be careful when they play. Rough play, such as puppy jumping on their back or playing tug of war, can result in new injuries, or aggravating an older injury. Puppies bring on a youthful playing with our older dogs, which is fun to watch, however, it can encourage injuries, so please be careful.
Choose a breed carefully. If, for example, you have a small breed older animal, and bring home a large breed puppy, there is going to be some potential to be injured. Puppies, as part of play, will try to jump on the other dog’s back. This is their natural tendencies trying to establish dominance. Well, if your poor older animal has hip or knee issues, you can imagine that this may not be the best case scenario. Thus, it is important, to only let them have supervised play times, and not be left alone to rough play all the time.
This is especially true if your other pet has a recovering knee injury. Not only is it going to be tough to get that knee to recover with a puppy wanting to play, but the puppy will also be very curious about this really cool chew toy on their leg! So, again, supervision at all times is going to be needed. I’m not saying you can’t get a new puppy, but think the scenarios through before you adopt. Or, perhaps look into adopting an older doggy instead of a new puppy.
Puppies are going to be growing and teething for at least a year, if not more. This means their energy will be high, and your injured dog’s tolerance for this may be low. Make sure you have the means to keep them separated when you are not home or there to supervise, because that would not be otherwise fair to your older injured dog.
Get lots of fun distracting toys for the puppy to play with (and don’t forget your older pup!). This really helps keep them distracted, and happy. If your older dog has a posh brace on, to support a CCL injury, it is ok to have them play for a little while with the puppy, but only directly supervised. The brace does act as a shock absorber, so a little play is ok, but no running or jumping while playing. My puppy likes to stand up on her back legs to “box” with my other dog. This would not go over well if my other dog had an injured leg.
Again, feel free to check us out at poshdogkneebrace.com, or email us through our contact form or visit us on our Facebook page.
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Hey guys, this is Nikki, Lead Veterinary technician with Posh Dog Knee Braces. Today let’s talk about puppies! Who doesn’t love puppies, right? All those little sharp teeth chewing on everything😊 Well, this is the best time to get your new puppy used to people and being handled.
First, never force your puppy to do something, or yell and be cross. The literally have a 30 second memory, so they just know mom or dad is yelling, and no idea what they did wrong. Never every hit your puppy, especially in the first few months of growing. Puppies have 3 very important learning times right around 8, 10, 15 weeks where they are the most sensitive and receptive to negative behavior from us. This is when we need to be really gently, soothing voice, and friendly with them, even if they just chewed up your favorite pair of shoes!
Start with a treat, or a few treats, that your puppy likes. Puppies want to please us, and are very food driven! Even peanut butter smeared on the wall for them to lick is great. Offer them a treat in one hand, and with the other hand gently touch their ears, massaging the tips, and work down to their toes. Spend at least 5 minutes a day giving them treats in replacement of you touching them on toes/feet/legs/ and ears. Especially if you have a floppy eared dog like I do, as they can be prone to ear infections.
This will really be helpful for you in the future. They will trust you and others to touch them, or for the veterinarian to complete their exam. I personally love puppy training classes, as they socialize your dog to other people, dogs, and get them even more bonded to your family in a safe environment. Little dogs tend to be nervous as it is, and can be nippy with toe nail trims. This can all be avoided if you take the time as a puppy to get them used to touch and other people.
Once your puppy is used to you touching their feet without flinching them back, start bringing out the toe nail clippers. Just let puppy sniff, and give them a treat. Then maybe try to do one nail, and treat right away. Do not force your dog to do all their toe nails at once, especially if they are afraid. This is a great way to make a toe nail fear biter, and cost you a lot in grooming fees.
Desensitization can be helpful now, because if your puppy grows up and unfortunately gets a CCL tear someday, putting something on their leg like our brace will be no problem, because you have set them up to succeed!
Feel free to email me at email@example.com with any questions, or visit us at poshdogkneebrace.com you can also check out our Facebook page.
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